You probably have already heard of some of the following mathematicians, maybe all of them. You may even be familiar with their work. But can you tell in which century/ies they lived or still live, and which country they come from? The photos may give you some hints.

Mathematician | Photo | Some key contributions |
---|---|---|

Abel | algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 5; group theory (abstract algebra); Abelian integrals (integral calculus); elliptic integrals (integral calculus) | |

al-Khwarizmi | algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; arithmetic; Hindu-Arabic numeral system | |

Apollonius of Perga | conic sections (geometry); book "Conics" | |

Appell | Appell series; differential equations; Appell sequence (polynomials); elliptic functions | |

Archimedes | geometry; volumes of solids of revolution; trigonometry; Archimedean spiral | |

Arnold | differential equations; dynamical systems; KAM theorem (integrable systems); catastrophe theory; mathematical physics | |

Artin | Artinian rings (abstract algebra); algebraic number theory (abstract algebra); Galois theory; braid theory (topology) | |

Aryabhata | algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; trigonometry | |

Banach | Banach space (functional analysis); Banach algebra (functional analysis); Banach-Tarski paradox (topology) | |

Bayes | Bayesian probability (probability theory) | |

Beltrami | non-Euclidean geometry; Beltrami–Klein model (geometry); Singular value decomposition (matrix theory) | |

Bernoulli, Daniel | probability theory | |

Bernoulli, Jacob | Bernoulli numbers; constant e; Bernoulli distribution; Bernoulli differential equation | |

Bernoulli, Johann | infinitesimal calculus | |

Bernoulli, Nicolaus II | St. Petersburg paradox (probability theory) | |

Bessel | Bessel functions (special functions) | |

Bézout | algebraic equations; Bézout's identity (number theory) | |

Bhaskara II | algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; Pell's equation | |

Bienaymé | Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality (probability theory); Bienaymé formula (statistics) | |

Binet | matrix multiplication; Cauchy-Binet formula (matrix theory); matrix algebra; Binet-Cauchy identity; Binet's Fibonacci number formula (number theory); Binet equation (differential equation) | |

Bolyai | non-Euclidian geometry; complex analysis | |

Bolzano | foundations of mathematics; limit of a function; Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem | |

Boole | Boolean algebra; mathematical logic | |

Borel | Borel set (topology); measure theory; probability theory | |

Brahmagupta | algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; Pell's equation; arithmetic; use of 0 | |

Brioschi | elliptic functions; polynomials of degree 5; polynomials of degree 6 | |

Brouwer | topology; Brouwer's fixed-point theorem (algebraic topology); simplicial approximation theorem (algebraic topology); invariance of domain (topology) | |

Cantor | foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; set theory; transfinite numbers; cardinal numbers; ordinal numbers; transcendental numbers | |

Cardano | algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3 | |

Cartan | Cartan matrix; group theory (abstract algebra); Cartan decomposition (abstract algebra); Cartan's theorem (abstract algebra) | |

Cauchy | foundations of mathematics; series; complex analysis; infinitesimal calculus; limit of a function; Cauchy sequence; continuity; Cauchy-Schwarz inequality; group theory (abstract algebra) | |

Cayley | group theory (abstract algebra); Cayley's theorem (group theory); Cayley-Hamilton theorem (matrix theory); Cayley graph (graph theory); Cayley's formula (graph theory) | |

Cesàro | differential geometry; Cesàro mean (divergent series) | |

Chasles | Chasles's relation (geometry); cross-ratio (geometry); coined the term "homothety" | |

Chebyshev | Chebyshev polynomials; orthogonal polynomials; Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality (probability theory); Chebyshev function (number theory); Chebyshev's bias (number theory) | |

Clairaut | Clairaut's equation (differential equation); Clairaut's relation (differential geometry) | |

Cramer | Cramer's rule (matrix theory) | |

D'Alembert | fundamental theorem of algebra; d'Alembertian | |

Darboux | Darboux sums (integral calculus); Darboux integral (integral calculus); Darboux's formula (series and integral calculus); Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation (differential equations); differential geometry of surfaces | |

Dedekind | foundations of mathematics; set theory; ring theory (abstract algebra); number theory | |

Del Ferro | algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3 | |

De Moivre | de Moivre's formula (trigonometry); Binet's formula (number theory); probability theory | |

De Morgan | De Morgan's laws; mathematical logic; mathematical induction | |

Descartes | Cartesian geometry; convention of using x, y, z etc. for unknowns in equations and a, b, c, etc. for knowns | |

Dieudonné | Dieudonné module (abstract algebra); Dieudonné ring (abstract algebra); books | |

Diophantus | algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations | |

Dirichlet | number theory; Dirichlet L-functions; Fourier series; continuity; Dirichlet integral (integral calculus) | |

Dudeney | recreational mathematics | |

Eisenstein | Eisenstein criterion (polynomials); quadratic reciprocity law; number theory | |

Eratosthenes | sieve of Eratosthenes (number theory) | |

Erdélyi | special functions; orthogonal polynomials; hypergeometric functions | |

Erdös | graph theory; number theory; Prime Number Theorem; probability theory | |

Euclid | arithmetic; number theory; trigonometry; Euclidian geometry | |

Eudoxus of Cnidus | geometry; method of exhaustion (integral calculus) | |

Euler | infinitesimal calculus; Seven Bridges of Königsberg (graph theory); number theory; Euler's totient function; power series; Euler-Maclaurin formula (series and integral calculus); transcendental numbers; concept of mathematical function | |

Faltings | number theory; Mordell conjecture | |

Faulhaber | Faulhaber's formula (sums of powers) | |

Fejér | harmonic analysis; Fejér kernel (Fourier series); Fejér's theorem | |

Fermat | Diophantine equations; Pell's equation; Fermat's little theorem (number theory); Fermat's theorem on sums of two squares (number theory); Fermat numbers (number theory); Fermat's Last Theorem (number theory) | |

Ferrari | algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 4 | |

Fibonacci | Fibonacci numbers; Hindu-Arabic numeral system | |

Fourier | Fourier series; Fourier transform | |

Fraenkel | mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms (set theory) | |

Freedman | geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=4 | |

Frobenius | elliptic functions; differential equations; Frobenius algebra (abstract algebra); Perron–Frobenius theorem (matrix theory) | |

Galois | algebraic equations; polynomials of any degree; Galois theory | |

Gardner | recreational mathematics | |

Gauss | fundamental theorem of algebra; number theory; quadratic forms; modular arithmetic; convention of using ≡ for congruence; geometry; Gaussian curvature (differential geometry); differential geometry of surfaces; Gauss-Jordan elimination (matrix theory) | |

Gelfand | group theory; representation theory; functional analysis | |

Germain | number theory; Fermat's last theorem (number theory); differential equations | |

Gödel | mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; Gödel's incompleteness theorems | |

Goldbach | Goldbach's conjecture; Fermat numbers (number theory) | |

Green | Green's theorem (integral calculus); Green's identities (integral calculus) | |

Grothendieck | algebraic geometry; algebraic number theory (abstract algebra) | |

Hadamard | prime number theorem (number theory); complex analysis; differential geometry; calculus of variations; differential equations | |

Hamilton, Richard | differential geometry; Ricci flow (differential geometry) | |

Hamilton, William | Hamiltonian; quaternions; hamiltonian paths (graph theory); Hamilton-Jacobi equation (differential equation) | |

Hardy | number theory; analysis; Waring's problem; Hardy–Littlewood conjectures | |

Hausdorff | Hausdorff space (topology); Hausdorff maximal principle (set theory); Hausdorff measure (measure theory) | |

Hermite | Hermitian matrices; Hermite normal form; Hermite polynomials; Hermitian forms; transcendental numbers | |

Heron of Alexandria | square roots; algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Heron's formula | |

Hilbert | foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Hilbert space; functional analysis; Hilbert's 23 problems | |

Hipparchus | trigonometry | |

Hölder | abstract algebra; classification of simple groups (group theory); Hölder's inequality (analysis); Hölder condition (analysis); Hölder's theorem (gamma function) | |

Ito | probability theory; stochastic differential equations; Ito's lemma | |

Iwasawa | Iwasawa decomposition (abstract algebra); Iwasawa algebra (abstract algebra); Iwasawa theory (abstract algebra) | |

Jacobi | elliptic functions; Hamilton-Jacobi equation (differential equation); Jacobian matrix; Jacobian (determinant); Jacobi symbol | |

Jordan, Camille | group theory (abstract algebra); Jordan matrix; Jordan's totient function; Jordan curve theorem (topology) | |

Jordan, Wilhelm | Gauss-Jordan elimination (matrix theory) | |

Klein | non-Euclidean geometry; Klein bottle (geometry); Erlangen program (geometry); Beltrami–Klein model (geometry); group theory (abstract algebra) | |

Kolmogorov | probability theory; differential equations; KAM theorem (integrable systems); stochastic processes | |

Kovalevskaya | Cauchy–Kowalevski theorem (differential equations); Abelian integrals (integral calculus) | |

Kronecker | Kronecker δ; Kronecker product (matrix theory); Kronecker symbol (number theory); algebraic number theory (abstract algebra) | |

L'Hôpital | L'Hôpital's rule (infinitesimal calculus) | |

Lagrange | Lagrange's four-square theorem (number theory); calculus of variations; Euler-Lagrange equation (differential equation); Lagrange multipliers (mathematical optimization); Lagrangian | |

Lang | abstract algebra; Diophantine geometry; modular forms; books | |

Langlands | abstract algebra; Langlands program (algebra and analysis) | |

Laplace | Laplacian; Laplace transform; Bayesian probability (probability theory) | |

Laurent | Laurent series (complex analysis); Laurent polynomial | |

Lebesgue | Lebesgue integration (integral calculus); measure theory | |

Legendre | least squares method; Legendre polynomials; quadratic reciprocity law; elliptic functions; Legendre symbol | |

Lehmer | number theory; primality tests; Lucas-Lehmer test; Mersenne primes | |

Leibniz | infinitesimal calculus; convention of using d for differentials (infinitesimal calculus); convention of using an elongated S for integrals (integral calculus) | |

Levi-Civita | tensor calculus; Hamilton–Jacobi equation | |

Lie | Lie groups (abstract algebra); group theory (abstract algebra) | |

Lions | nonlinear partial differential equations | |

Liouville | number theory; complex analysis; Liouville's theorem; transcendental numbers; Liouville numbers; Sturm-Liouville theory | |

Lipschitz | Lipschitz continuity condition; Dini-Lipschitz criterion | |

Littlewood | number theory; analysis; Diophantine approximation; Waring's problem; Hardy–Littlewood conjectures | |

Lobachevsky | hyperbolic geometry (non-Euclidean geometry) | |

Lucas | Diophantine equations; number theory; primality tests; Lucas sequences; Lucas numbers; Lucas-Lehmer test; Mersenne primes | |

Lyapunov | differential equations; Lyapunov exponent (chaos theory); central limit theorem (probability theory) | |

Maclaurin | Maclaurin series; Euler-Maclaurin formula (series and integral calculus) | |

Manin | algebraic geometry; arithmetic topology; Diophantine geometry; Gauss-Manin connection | |

Markov | Markov chains; Markov processes; stochastic processes | |

Matiyasevich | Hilbert's tenth problem; Diophantine equations | |

Mazur | geometric topology; arithmetic topology; Diophantine geometry | |

Mersenne | Mersenne primes | |

Minkowski | Minkowski inequality; number theory | |

Mittag-Leffler | Mittag-Leffler function (special functions); Mittag-Leffler star (complex analysis); Mittag-Leffler's theorem (complex analysis); Mittag-Leffler summation (formal power series) | |

Mordell | number theory; Diophantine equations; Mordell curve; modular forms; Mordell-Weil theorem; Mordell conjecture | |

Napier | logarithm; decimal point | |

Newton | dynamical systems; infinitesimal calculus; binomial theorem | |

Noether | abstract algebra; Noetherian ring (abstract algebra) | |

Ostrogradsky | divergence theorem; calculus of variations | |

Painlevé | differential equations | |

Pascal | probability theory; Pascal's triangle | |

Peano | mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; set theory; Peano axioms (axiomatization); Peano existence theorem (differential equations) | |

Perelman | geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=3; Thurston's geometrization conjecture (geometric topology) | |

Perron | Perron method (differential equations); Perron–Frobenius theorem (matrix theory); Perron's formula (number theory) | |

Poincaré | dynamical systems; Poincaré map (chaos theory); topology; Poincaré conjecture; fundamental group (algebraic topology); Fuchsian groups; Kleinian groups; differential equations | |

Poisson | differential equations; Poisson's equation; probability theory; Poisson distribution | |

Pólya | heuristics; combinatorics; number theory; probability theory | |

Pythagoras | arithmetic; Pythagorean theorem | |

Ramanujan | number theory; series; continued fractions; Ramanujan-Petersson conjecture | |

Ribet | Fermat's last theorem (number theory); modular forms; Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory) | |

Riccati | Riccati equation (differential equation) | |

Ricci-Curbastro | tensor calculus; Ricci flow (differential geometry); Ricci curvature (differential geometry) | |

Riemann | Riemannian geometry (non-Euclidean geometry); Riemann zeta function; Riemann hypothesis; Riemann integral (integral calculus); real analysis; differential geometry of surfaces; | |

Riesz | divergent series; partial differential equations | |

Rolle | Rolle's theorem | |

Russell | mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; Russell's paradox | |

Sarrus | rule of Sarrus (determinants); Sarrus numbers (number theory) | |

Schwartz | theory of distributions | |

Serre | algebraic geometry; algebraic number theory (abstract algebra) | |

Shimura | Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory) | |

Simpson | Simpson's rule (integral calculus) | |

Smale | geometric topology; h-cobordism; Poincaré conjecture for n≥5 | |

Sobolev | theory of distributions; Sobolev space (analysis) | |

Stallings | geometric group theory; Stallings theorem about ends of groups (group theory); geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=6 | |

Stewart | recreational mathematics | |

Stieltjes | Riemann-Stieltjes integral (integral calculus); continued fractions; orthogonal polynomials | |

Stirling | Stirling numbers; Stirling permutations; Stirling's approximation (factorials) | |

Stokes | Stokes's theorem (differential geometry); Stokes line (complex analysis) | |

Sturm | Sturm's theorem (polynomials); Sturm-Liouville equation (differential equation); Sturm-Liouville theory (S-L theory); Sturm series (polynomials) | |

Sun Zi | algebraic equations; Diophantine equations; square roots; Chinese remainder theorem (number theory); books | |

Sylvester | Sylvester's determinant theorem (matrix theory); Sylvester's formula (matrix theory); Sylvester equation (matrix theory); coined the terms "graph", "discriminant", and "totient" | |

Szegö | orthogonal polynomials; Toeplitz matrices | |

Taniyama | Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory) | |

Tao | Green-Tao theorem (number theory); circular law (probability theory); Hardy-Littlewood prime tuples conjecture; prime gaps (number theory) | |

Tartaglia | algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3 | |

Taylor, Brook | Taylor series; Taylor's theorem | |

Taylor, Richard | Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory); Langlands program (algebra and analysis) | |

Thales | geometry | |

Thom | topology; catastrophe theory; singularity theory | |

Thue | Diophantine equations; Diophantine approximations; Thue equation; Thue-Siegel-Roth theorem | |

Thurston | manifolds (topology); foliation theory (topology); Thurston's geometrization conjecture (geometric topology) | |

Turán | number theory; graph theory | |

Vandermonde | Vandermonde matrix; Vandermonde determinant; Vandermonde's identity | |

Van der Waerden | abstract algebra | |

Viète | convention of using letters for unknowns in equations | |

Vinogradov | analytic number theory | |

Von Neumann | foundations of mathematics; measure theory; ergodic theory | |

Wallis | approximation of π; convention of using symbol ∞ for infinity; infinitesimal calculus | |

Weierstrass | foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; limit of a function; analysis; Weierstrass factorization theorem (complex analysis); Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem; elliptic functions; calculus of variations | |

Weil | number theory; algebraic geometry; Mordell-Weil theorem; Weil conjectures | |

Weyl | Riemann surfaces (topology); compact groups (abstract algebra); Weyl groups (abstract algebra); Lie algebras (abstract algebra); Weyl law (eigenvalues); Weyl's criterion (Diophantine equations) | |

Wiles | Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory) | |

Yoccoz | dynamical systems | |

Zeeman | geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=5; catastrophe theory; singularity theory | |

Zermelo | mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms (set theory) |

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