# Quiz

You probably have already heard of some of the following mathematicians, maybe all of them. You may even be familiar with their work. But can you tell in which century/ies they lived or still live, and which country they come from? The photos may give you some hints.

Mathematician Photo Some key contributions
Abel algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 5; group theory (abstract algebra); Abelian integrals (integral calculus); elliptic integrals (integral calculus)
al-Khwarizmi algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; arithmetic; Hindu-Arabic numeral system
Apollonius of Perga conic sections (geometry); book "Conics"
Appell Appell series; differential equations; Appell sequence (polynomials); elliptic functions
Archimedes geometry; volumes of solids of revolution; trigonometry; Archimedean spiral
Arnold differential equations; dynamical systems; KAM theorem (integrable systems); catastrophe theory; mathematical physics
Artin Artinian rings (abstract algebra); algebraic number theory (abstract algebra); Galois theory; braid theory (topology)
Aryabhata algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; trigonometry
Banach Banach space (functional analysis); Banach algebra (functional analysis); Banach-Tarski paradox (topology)
Bayes Bayesian probability (probability theory)
Beltrami non-Euclidean geometry; Beltrami–Klein model (geometry); Singular value decomposition (matrix theory)
Bernoulli, Daniel probability theory
Bernoulli, Jacob Bernoulli numbers; constant e; Bernoulli distribution; Bernoulli differential equation
Bernoulli, Johann infinitesimal calculus
Bernoulli, Nicolaus II St. Petersburg paradox (probability theory)
Bessel Bessel functions (special functions)
Bézout algebraic equations; Bézout's identity (number theory)
Bhaskara II algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; Pell's equation
Bienaymé Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality (probability theory); Bienaymé formula (statistics)
Binet matrix multiplication; Cauchy-Binet formula (matrix theory); matrix algebra; Binet-Cauchy identity; Binet's Fibonacci number formula (number theory); Binet equation (differential equation)
Bolyai non-Euclidian geometry; complex analysis
Bolzano foundations of mathematics; limit of a function; Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem
Boole Boolean algebra; mathematical logic
Borel Borel set (topology); measure theory; probability theory
Brahmagupta algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; Pell's equation; arithmetic; use of 0
Brioschi elliptic functions; polynomials of degree 5; polynomials of degree 6
Brouwer topology; Brouwer's fixed-point theorem (algebraic topology); simplicial approximation theorem (algebraic topology); invariance of domain (topology)
Cantor foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; set theory; transfinite numbers; cardinal numbers; ordinal numbers; transcendental numbers
Cardano algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3
Cartan Cartan matrix; group theory (abstract algebra); Cartan decomposition (abstract algebra); Cartan's theorem (abstract algebra)
Cauchy foundations of mathematics; series; complex analysis; infinitesimal calculus; limit of a function; Cauchy sequence; continuity; Cauchy-Schwarz inequality; group theory (abstract algebra)
Cayley group theory (abstract algebra); Cayley's theorem (group theory); Cayley-Hamilton theorem (matrix theory); Cayley graph (graph theory); Cayley's formula (graph theory)
Cesàro differential geometry; Cesàro mean (divergent series)
Chasles Chasles's relation (geometry); cross-ratio (geometry); coined the term "homothety"
Chebyshev Chebyshev polynomials; orthogonal polynomials; Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality (probability theory); Chebyshev function (number theory); Chebyshev's bias (number theory)
Clairaut Clairaut's equation (differential equation); Clairaut's relation (differential geometry)
Cramer Cramer's rule (matrix theory)
D'Alembert fundamental theorem of algebra; d'Alembertian
Darboux Darboux sums (integral calculus); Darboux integral (integral calculus); Darboux's formula (series and integral calculus); Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation (differential equations); differential geometry of surfaces
Dedekind foundations of mathematics; set theory; ring theory (abstract algebra); number theory
Del Ferro algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3
De Moivre de Moivre's formula (trigonometry); Binet's formula (number theory); probability theory
De Morgan De Morgan's laws; mathematical logic; mathematical induction
Descartes Cartesian geometry; convention of using x, y, z etc. for unknowns in equations and a, b, c, etc. for knowns
Dieudonné Dieudonné module (abstract algebra); Dieudonné ring (abstract algebra); books
Diophantus algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations
Dirichlet number theory; Dirichlet L-functions; Fourier series; continuity; Dirichlet integral (integral calculus)
Dudeney recreational mathematics
Eisenstein Eisenstein criterion (polynomials); quadratic reciprocity law; number theory
Eratosthenes sieve of Eratosthenes (number theory)
Erdélyi special functions; orthogonal polynomials; hypergeometric functions
Erdös graph theory; number theory; Prime Number Theorem; probability theory
Euclid arithmetic; number theory; trigonometry; Euclidian geometry
Eudoxus of Cnidus geometry; method of exhaustion (integral calculus)
Euler infinitesimal calculus; Seven Bridges of Königsberg (graph theory); number theory; Euler's totient function; power series; Euler-Maclaurin formula (series and integral calculus); transcendental numbers; concept of mathematical function
Faltings number theory; Mordell conjecture
Faulhaber Faulhaber's formula (sums of powers)
Fejér harmonic analysis; Fejér kernel (Fourier series); Fejér's theorem
Fermat Diophantine equations; Pell's equation; Fermat's little theorem (number theory); Fermat's theorem on sums of two squares (number theory); Fermat numbers (number theory); Fermat's Last Theorem (number theory)
Ferrari algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 4
Fibonacci Fibonacci numbers; Hindu-Arabic numeral system
Fourier Fourier series; Fourier transform
Fraenkel mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms (set theory)
Freedman geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=4
Frobenius elliptic functions; differential equations; Frobenius algebra (abstract algebra); Perron–Frobenius theorem (matrix theory)
Galois algebraic equations; polynomials of any degree; Galois theory
Gardner recreational mathematics
Gauss fundamental theorem of algebra; number theory; quadratic forms; modular arithmetic; convention of using ≡ for congruence; geometry; Gaussian curvature (differential geometry); differential geometry of surfaces; Gauss-Jordan elimination (matrix theory)
Gelfand group theory; representation theory; functional analysis
Germain number theory; Fermat's last theorem (number theory); differential equations
Gödel mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; Gödel's incompleteness theorems
Goldbach Goldbach's conjecture; Fermat numbers (number theory)
Green Green's theorem (integral calculus); Green's identities (integral calculus)
Grothendieck algebraic geometry; algebraic number theory (abstract algebra)
Hadamard prime number theorem (number theory); complex analysis; differential geometry; calculus of variations; differential equations
Hamilton, Richard differential geometry; Ricci flow (differential geometry)
Hamilton, William Hamiltonian; quaternions; hamiltonian paths (graph theory); Hamilton-Jacobi equation (differential equation)
Hardy number theory; analysis; Waring's problem; Hardy–Littlewood conjectures
Hausdorff Hausdorff space (topology); Hausdorff maximal principle (set theory); Hausdorff measure (measure theory)
Hermite Hermitian matrices; Hermite normal form; Hermite polynomials; Hermitian forms; transcendental numbers
Heron of Alexandria square roots; algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Heron's formula
Hilbert foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Hilbert space; functional analysis; Hilbert's 23 problems
Hipparchus trigonometry
Hölder abstract algebra; classification of simple groups (group theory); Hölder's inequality (analysis); Hölder condition (analysis); Hölder's theorem (gamma function)
Ito probability theory; stochastic differential equations; Ito's lemma
Iwasawa Iwasawa decomposition (abstract algebra); Iwasawa algebra (abstract algebra); Iwasawa theory (abstract algebra)
Jacobi elliptic functions; Hamilton-Jacobi equation (differential equation); Jacobian matrix; Jacobian (determinant); Jacobi symbol
Jordan, Camille group theory (abstract algebra); Jordan matrix; Jordan's totient function; Jordan curve theorem (topology)
Jordan, Wilhelm Gauss-Jordan elimination (matrix theory)
Klein non-Euclidean geometry; Klein bottle (geometry); Erlangen program (geometry); Beltrami–Klein model (geometry); group theory (abstract algebra)
Kolmogorov probability theory; differential equations; KAM theorem (integrable systems); stochastic processes
Kovalevskaya Cauchy–Kowalevski theorem (differential equations); Abelian integrals (integral calculus)
Kronecker Kronecker δ; Kronecker product (matrix theory); Kronecker symbol (number theory); algebraic number theory (abstract algebra)
L'Hôpital L'Hôpital's rule (infinitesimal calculus)
Lagrange Lagrange's four-square theorem (number theory); calculus of variations; Euler-Lagrange equation (differential equation); Lagrange multipliers (mathematical optimization); Lagrangian
Lang abstract algebra; Diophantine geometry; modular forms; books
Langlands abstract algebra; Langlands program (algebra and analysis)
Laplace Laplacian; Laplace transform; Bayesian probability (probability theory)
Laurent Laurent series (complex analysis); Laurent polynomial
Lebesgue Lebesgue integration (integral calculus); measure theory
Legendre least squares method; Legendre polynomials; quadratic reciprocity law; elliptic functions; Legendre symbol
Lehmer number theory; primality tests; Lucas-Lehmer test; Mersenne primes
Leibniz infinitesimal calculus; convention of using d for differentials (infinitesimal calculus); convention of using an elongated S for integrals (integral calculus)
Levi-Civita tensor calculus; Hamilton–Jacobi equation
Lie Lie groups (abstract algebra); group theory (abstract algebra)
Lions nonlinear partial differential equations
Liouville number theory; complex analysis; Liouville's theorem; transcendental numbers; Liouville numbers; Sturm-Liouville theory
Lipschitz Lipschitz continuity condition; Dini-Lipschitz criterion
Littlewood number theory; analysis; Diophantine approximation; Waring's problem; Hardy–Littlewood conjectures
Lobachevsky hyperbolic geometry (non-Euclidean geometry)
Lucas Diophantine equations; number theory; primality tests; Lucas sequences; Lucas numbers; Lucas-Lehmer test; Mersenne primes
Lyapunov differential equations; Lyapunov exponent (chaos theory); central limit theorem (probability theory)
Maclaurin Maclaurin series; Euler-Maclaurin formula (series and integral calculus)
Manin algebraic geometry; arithmetic topology; Diophantine geometry; Gauss-Manin connection
Markov Markov chains; Markov processes; stochastic processes
Matiyasevich Hilbert's tenth problem; Diophantine equations
Mazur geometric topology; arithmetic topology; Diophantine geometry
Mersenne Mersenne primes
Minkowski Minkowski inequality; number theory
Mittag-Leffler Mittag-Leffler function (special functions); Mittag-Leffler star (complex analysis); Mittag-Leffler's theorem (complex analysis); Mittag-Leffler summation (formal power series)
Mordell number theory; Diophantine equations; Mordell curve; modular forms; Mordell-Weil theorem; Mordell conjecture
Napier logarithm; decimal point
Newton dynamical systems; infinitesimal calculus; binomial theorem
Noether abstract algebra; Noetherian ring (abstract algebra)
Ostrogradsky divergence theorem; calculus of variations
Painlevé differential equations
Pascal probability theory; Pascal's triangle
Peano mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; set theory; Peano axioms (axiomatization); Peano existence theorem (differential equations)
Perelman geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=3; Thurston's geometrization conjecture (geometric topology)
Perron Perron method (differential equations); Perron–Frobenius theorem (matrix theory); Perron's formula (number theory)
Poincaré dynamical systems; Poincaré map (chaos theory); topology; Poincaré conjecture; fundamental group (algebraic topology); Fuchsian groups; Kleinian groups; differential equations
Poisson differential equations; Poisson's equation; probability theory; Poisson distribution
Pólya heuristics; combinatorics; number theory; probability theory
Pythagoras arithmetic; Pythagorean theorem
Ramanujan number theory; series; continued fractions; Ramanujan-Petersson conjecture
Ribet Fermat's last theorem (number theory); modular forms; Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Riccati Riccati equation (differential equation)
Ricci-Curbastro tensor calculus; Ricci flow (differential geometry); Ricci curvature (differential geometry)
Riemann Riemannian geometry (non-Euclidean geometry); Riemann zeta function; Riemann hypothesis; Riemann integral (integral calculus); real analysis; differential geometry of surfaces;
Riesz divergent series; partial differential equations
Rolle Rolle's theorem
Russell mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; Russell's paradox
Sarrus rule of Sarrus (determinants); Sarrus numbers (number theory)
Schwartz theory of distributions
Serre algebraic geometry; algebraic number theory (abstract algebra)
Shimura Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Simpson Simpson's rule (integral calculus)
Smale geometric topology; h-cobordism; Poincaré conjecture for n≥5
Sobolev theory of distributions; Sobolev space (analysis)
Stallings geometric group theory; Stallings theorem about ends of groups (group theory); geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=6
Stewart recreational mathematics
Stieltjes Riemann-Stieltjes integral (integral calculus); continued fractions; orthogonal polynomials
Stirling Stirling numbers; Stirling permutations; Stirling's approximation (factorials)
Stokes Stokes's theorem (differential geometry); Stokes line (complex analysis)
Sturm Sturm's theorem (polynomials); Sturm-Liouville equation (differential equation); Sturm-Liouville theory (S-L theory); Sturm series (polynomials)
Sun Zi algebraic equations; Diophantine equations; square roots; Chinese remainder theorem (number theory); books
Sylvester Sylvester's determinant theorem (matrix theory); Sylvester's formula (matrix theory); Sylvester equation (matrix theory); coined the terms "graph", "discriminant", and "totient"
Szegö orthogonal polynomials; Toeplitz matrices
Taniyama Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Tao Green-Tao theorem (number theory); circular law (probability theory); Hardy-Littlewood prime tuples conjecture; prime gaps (number theory)
Tartaglia algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3
Taylor, Brook Taylor series; Taylor's theorem
Taylor, Richard Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory); Langlands program (algebra and analysis)
Thales geometry
Thom topology; catastrophe theory; singularity theory
Thue Diophantine equations; Diophantine approximations; Thue equation; Thue-Siegel-Roth theorem
Thurston manifolds (topology); foliation theory (topology); Thurston's geometrization conjecture (geometric topology)
Turán number theory; graph theory
Vandermonde Vandermonde matrix; Vandermonde determinant; Vandermonde's identity
Van der Waerden abstract algebra
Viète convention of using letters for unknowns in equations
Vinogradov analytic number theory
Von Neumann foundations of mathematics; measure theory; ergodic theory
Wallis approximation of π; convention of using symbol ∞ for infinity; infinitesimal calculus
Weierstrass foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; limit of a function; analysis; Weierstrass factorization theorem (complex analysis); Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem; elliptic functions; calculus of variations
Weil number theory; algebraic geometry; Mordell-Weil theorem; Weil conjectures
Weyl Riemann surfaces (topology); compact groups (abstract algebra); Weyl groups (abstract algebra); Lie algebras (abstract algebra); Weyl law (eigenvalues); Weyl's criterion (Diophantine equations)
Wiles Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Yoccoz dynamical systems
Zeeman geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=5; catastrophe theory; singularity theory
Zermelo mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms (set theory)