You probably have already heard of some of the following mathematicians, maybe all of them. You may even be familiar with their work. But can you tell in which century/ies they lived or still live, and which country they come from? The photos may give you some hints.

Mathematician Photo Some key contributions
Abel photo algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 5; group theory (abstract algebra); Abelian integrals (integral calculus); elliptic integrals (integral calculus)
al-Khwarizmi photo algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; arithmetic; Hindu-Arabic numeral system
Apollonius of Perga conic sections (geometry); book "Conics"
Appell photo Appell series; differential equations; Appell sequence (polynomials); elliptic functions
Archimedes photo geometry; volumes of solids of revolution; trigonometry; Archimedean spiral
Arnold photo differential equations; dynamical systems; KAM theorem (integrable systems); catastrophe theory; mathematical physics
Artin photo Artinian rings (abstract algebra); algebraic number theory (abstract algebra); Galois theory; braid theory (topology)
Aryabhata photo algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; trigonometry
Banach photo Banach space (functional analysis); Banach algebra (functional analysis); Banach-Tarski paradox (topology)
Bayes photo Bayesian probability (probability theory)
Beltrami photo non-Euclidean geometry; Beltrami–Klein model (geometry); Singular value decomposition (matrix theory)
Bernoulli, Daniel photo probability theory
Bernoulli, Jacob photo Bernoulli numbers; constant e; Bernoulli distribution; Bernoulli differential equation
Bernoulli, Johann photo infinitesimal calculus
Bernoulli, Nicolaus II photo St. Petersburg paradox (probability theory)
Bessel photo Bessel functions (special functions)
Bézout photo algebraic equations; Bézout's identity (number theory)
Bhaskara II algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; Pell's equation
Bienaymé photo Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality (probability theory); Bienaymé formula (statistics)
Binet photo matrix multiplication; Cauchy-Binet formula (matrix theory); matrix algebra; Binet-Cauchy identity; Binet's Fibonacci number formula (number theory); Binet equation (differential equation)
Bolyai photo non-Euclidian geometry; complex analysis
Bolzano photo foundations of mathematics; limit of a function; Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem
Boole photo Boolean algebra; mathematical logic
Borel photo Borel set (topology); measure theory; probability theory
Brahmagupta algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; Pell's equation; arithmetic; use of 0
Brioschi photo elliptic functions; polynomials of degree 5; polynomials of degree 6
Brouwer photo topology; Brouwer's fixed-point theorem (algebraic topology); simplicial approximation theorem (algebraic topology); invariance of domain (topology)
Cantor photo foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; set theory; transfinite numbers; cardinal numbers; ordinal numbers; transcendental numbers
Cardano photo algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3
Cartan photo Cartan matrix; group theory (abstract algebra); Cartan decomposition (abstract algebra); Cartan's theorem (abstract algebra)
Cauchy photo foundations of mathematics; series; complex analysis; infinitesimal calculus; limit of a function; Cauchy sequence; continuity; Cauchy-Schwarz inequality; group theory (abstract algebra)
Cayley photo group theory (abstract algebra); Cayley's theorem (group theory); Cayley-Hamilton theorem (matrix theory); Cayley graph (graph theory); Cayley's formula (graph theory)
Cesàro photo differential geometry; Cesàro mean (divergent series)
Chasles photo Chasles's relation (geometry); cross-ratio (geometry); coined the term "homothety"
Chebyshev photo Chebyshev polynomials; orthogonal polynomials; Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality (probability theory); Chebyshev function (number theory); Chebyshev's bias (number theory)
Clairaut photo Clairaut's equation (differential equation); Clairaut's relation (differential geometry)
Cramer photo Cramer's rule (matrix theory)
D'Alembert photo fundamental theorem of algebra; d'Alembertian
Darboux photo Darboux sums (integral calculus); Darboux integral (integral calculus); Darboux's formula (series and integral calculus); Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation (differential equations); differential geometry of surfaces
Dedekind photo foundations of mathematics; set theory; ring theory (abstract algebra); number theory
Del Ferro algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3
De Moivre photo de Moivre's formula (trigonometry); Binet's formula (number theory); probability theory
De Morgan photo De Morgan's laws; mathematical logic; mathematical induction
Descartes photo Cartesian geometry; convention of using x, y, z etc. for unknowns in equations and a, b, c, etc. for knowns
Dieudonné photo Dieudonné module (abstract algebra); Dieudonné ring (abstract algebra); books
Diophantus algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations
Dirichlet photo number theory; Dirichlet L-functions; Fourier series; continuity; Dirichlet integral (integral calculus)
Dudeney photo recreational mathematics
Eisenstein photo Eisenstein criterion (polynomials); quadratic reciprocity law; number theory
Eratosthenes photo sieve of Eratosthenes (number theory)
Erdélyi special functions; orthogonal polynomials; hypergeometric functions
Erdös photo graph theory; number theory; Prime Number Theorem; probability theory
Euclid photo arithmetic; number theory; trigonometry; Euclidian geometry
Eudoxus of Cnidus geometry; method of exhaustion (integral calculus)
Euler photo infinitesimal calculus; Seven Bridges of Königsberg (graph theory); number theory; Euler's totient function; power series; Euler-Maclaurin formula (series and integral calculus); transcendental numbers; concept of mathematical function
Faltings photo number theory; Mordell conjecture
Faulhaber photo Faulhaber's formula (sums of powers)
Fejér harmonic analysis; Fejér kernel (Fourier series); Fejér's theorem
Fermat photo Diophantine equations; Pell's equation; Fermat's little theorem (number theory); Fermat's theorem on sums of two squares (number theory); Fermat numbers (number theory); Fermat's Last Theorem (number theory)
Ferrari algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 4
Fibonacci photo Fibonacci numbers; Hindu-Arabic numeral system
Fourier photo Fourier series; Fourier transform
Fraenkel photo mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms (set theory)
Freedman photo geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=4
Frobenius photo elliptic functions; differential equations; Frobenius algebra (abstract algebra); Perron–Frobenius theorem (matrix theory)
Galois photo algebraic equations; polynomials of any degree; Galois theory
Gardner photo recreational mathematics
Gauss photo fundamental theorem of algebra; number theory; quadratic forms; modular arithmetic; convention of using ≡ for congruence; geometry; Gaussian curvature (differential geometry); differential geometry of surfaces; Gauss-Jordan elimination (matrix theory)
Gelfand photo group theory; representation theory; functional analysis
Germain photo number theory; Fermat's last theorem (number theory); differential equations
Gödel photo mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; Gödel's incompleteness theorems
Goldbach Goldbach's conjecture; Fermat numbers (number theory)
Green Green's theorem (integral calculus); Green's identities (integral calculus)
Grothendieck photo algebraic geometry; algebraic number theory (abstract algebra)
Hadamard photo prime number theorem (number theory); complex analysis; differential geometry; calculus of variations; differential equations
Hamilton, Richard photo differential geometry; Ricci flow (differential geometry)
Hamilton, William photo Hamiltonian; quaternions; hamiltonian paths (graph theory); Hamilton-Jacobi equation (differential equation)
Hardy photo number theory; analysis; Waring's problem; Hardy–Littlewood conjectures
Hausdorff photo Hausdorff space (topology); Hausdorff maximal principle (set theory); Hausdorff measure (measure theory)
Hermite photo Hermitian matrices; Hermite normal form; Hermite polynomials; Hermitian forms; transcendental numbers
Heron of Alexandria photo square roots; algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Heron's formula
Hilbert photo foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Hilbert space; functional analysis; Hilbert's 23 problems
Hipparchus photo trigonometry
Hölder photo abstract algebra; classification of simple groups (group theory); Hölder's inequality (analysis); Hölder condition (analysis); Hölder's theorem (gamma function)
Ito probability theory; stochastic differential equations; Ito's lemma
Iwasawa Iwasawa decomposition (abstract algebra); Iwasawa algebra (abstract algebra); Iwasawa theory (abstract algebra)
Jacobi photo elliptic functions; Hamilton-Jacobi equation (differential equation); Jacobian matrix; Jacobian (determinant); Jacobi symbol
Jordan, Camille photo group theory (abstract algebra); Jordan matrix; Jordan's totient function; Jordan curve theorem (topology)
Jordan, Wilhelm photo Gauss-Jordan elimination (matrix theory)
Klein photo non-Euclidean geometry; Klein bottle (geometry); Erlangen program (geometry); Beltrami–Klein model (geometry); group theory (abstract algebra)
Kolmogorov photo probability theory; differential equations; KAM theorem (integrable systems); stochastic processes
Kovalevskaya photo Cauchy–Kowalevski theorem (differential equations); Abelian integrals (integral calculus)
Kronecker photo Kronecker δ; Kronecker product (matrix theory); Kronecker symbol (number theory); algebraic number theory (abstract algebra)
L'Hôpital photo L'Hôpital's rule (infinitesimal calculus)
Lagrange photo Lagrange's four-square theorem (number theory); calculus of variations; Euler-Lagrange equation (differential equation); Lagrange multipliers (mathematical optimization); Lagrangian
Lang photo abstract algebra; Diophantine geometry; modular forms; books
Langlands abstract algebra; Langlands program (algebra and analysis)
Laplace photo Laplacian; Laplace transform; Bayesian probability (probability theory)
Laurent Laurent series (complex analysis); Laurent polynomial
Lebesgue photo Lebesgue integration (integral calculus); measure theory
Legendre photo least squares method; Legendre polynomials; quadratic reciprocity law; elliptic functions; Legendre symbol
Lehmer photo number theory; primality tests; Lucas-Lehmer test; Mersenne primes
Leibniz photo infinitesimal calculus; convention of using d for differentials (infinitesimal calculus); convention of using an elongated S for integrals (integral calculus)
Levi-Civita photo tensor calculus; Hamilton–Jacobi equation
Lie photo Lie groups (abstract algebra); group theory (abstract algebra)
Lions photo nonlinear partial differential equations
Liouville photo number theory; complex analysis; Liouville's theorem; transcendental numbers; Liouville numbers; Sturm-Liouville theory
Lipschitz photo Lipschitz continuity condition; Dini-Lipschitz criterion
Littlewood number theory; analysis; Diophantine approximation; Waring's problem; Hardy–Littlewood conjectures
Lobachevsky photo hyperbolic geometry (non-Euclidean geometry)
Lucas photo Diophantine equations; number theory; primality tests; Lucas sequences; Lucas numbers; Lucas-Lehmer test; Mersenne primes
Lyapunov photo differential equations; Lyapunov exponent (chaos theory); central limit theorem (probability theory)
Maclaurin photo Maclaurin series; Euler-Maclaurin formula (series and integral calculus)
Manin photo algebraic geometry; arithmetic topology; Diophantine geometry; Gauss-Manin connection
Markov photo Markov chains; Markov processes; stochastic processes
Matiyasevich photo Hilbert's tenth problem; Diophantine equations
Mazur photo geometric topology; arithmetic topology; Diophantine geometry
Mersenne photo Mersenne primes
Minkowski photo Minkowski inequality; number theory
Mittag-Leffler photo Mittag-Leffler function (special functions); Mittag-Leffler star (complex analysis); Mittag-Leffler's theorem (complex analysis); Mittag-Leffler summation (formal power series)
Mordell photo number theory; Diophantine equations; Mordell curve; modular forms; Mordell-Weil theorem; Mordell conjecture
Napier photo logarithm; decimal point
Newton photo dynamical systems; infinitesimal calculus; binomial theorem
Noether photo abstract algebra; Noetherian ring (abstract algebra)
Ostrogradsky photo divergence theorem; calculus of variations
Painlevé photo differential equations
Pascal photo probability theory; Pascal's triangle
Peano photo mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; set theory; Peano axioms (axiomatization); Peano existence theorem (differential equations)
Perelman photo geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=3; Thurston's geometrization conjecture (geometric topology)
Perron photo Perron method (differential equations); Perron–Frobenius theorem (matrix theory); Perron's formula (number theory)
Poincaré photo dynamical systems; Poincaré map (chaos theory); topology; Poincaré conjecture; fundamental group (algebraic topology); Fuchsian groups; Kleinian groups; differential equations
Poisson photo differential equations; Poisson's equation; probability theory; Poisson distribution
Pólya photo heuristics; combinatorics; number theory; probability theory
Pythagoras photo arithmetic; Pythagorean theorem
Ramanujan photo number theory; series; continued fractions; Ramanujan-Petersson conjecture
Ribet photo Fermat's last theorem (number theory); modular forms; Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Riccati photo Riccati equation (differential equation)
Ricci-Curbastro photo tensor calculus; Ricci flow (differential geometry); Ricci curvature (differential geometry)
Riemann photo Riemannian geometry (non-Euclidean geometry); Riemann zeta function; Riemann hypothesis; Riemann integral (integral calculus); real analysis; differential geometry of surfaces;
Riesz divergent series; partial differential equations
Rolle Rolle's theorem
Russell photo mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; Russell's paradox
Sarrus rule of Sarrus (determinants); Sarrus numbers (number theory)
Schwartz photo theory of distributions
Serre photo algebraic geometry; algebraic number theory (abstract algebra)
Shimura photo Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Simpson Simpson's rule (integral calculus)
Smale photo geometric topology; h-cobordism; Poincaré conjecture for n≥5
Sobolev photo theory of distributions; Sobolev space (analysis)
Stallings photo geometric group theory; Stallings theorem about ends of groups (group theory); geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=6
Stewart photo recreational mathematics
Stieltjes photo Riemann-Stieltjes integral (integral calculus); continued fractions; orthogonal polynomials
Stirling Stirling numbers; Stirling permutations; Stirling's approximation (factorials)
Stokes photo Stokes's theorem (differential geometry); Stokes line (complex analysis)
Sturm photo Sturm's theorem (polynomials); Sturm-Liouville equation (differential equation); Sturm-Liouville theory (S-L theory); Sturm series (polynomials)
Sun Zi algebraic equations; Diophantine equations; square roots; Chinese remainder theorem (number theory); books
Sylvester photo Sylvester's determinant theorem (matrix theory); Sylvester's formula (matrix theory); Sylvester equation (matrix theory); coined the terms "graph", "discriminant", and "totient"
Szegö orthogonal polynomials; Toeplitz matrices
Taniyama photo Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Tao photo Green-Tao theorem (number theory); circular law (probability theory); Hardy-Littlewood prime tuples conjecture; prime gaps (number theory)
Tartaglia photo algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3
Taylor, Brook photo Taylor series; Taylor's theorem
Taylor, Richard photo Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory); Langlands program (algebra and analysis)
Thales photo geometry
Thom photo topology; catastrophe theory; singularity theory
Thue photo Diophantine equations; Diophantine approximations; Thue equation; Thue-Siegel-Roth theorem
Thurston photo manifolds (topology); foliation theory (topology); Thurston's geometrization conjecture (geometric topology)
Turán photo number theory; graph theory
Vandermonde Vandermonde matrix; Vandermonde determinant; Vandermonde's identity
Van der Waerden photo abstract algebra
Viète photo convention of using letters for unknowns in equations
Vinogradov analytic number theory
Von Neumann photo foundations of mathematics; measure theory; ergodic theory
Wallis photo approximation of π; convention of using symbol ∞ for infinity; infinitesimal calculus
Weierstrass photo foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; limit of a function; analysis; Weierstrass factorization theorem (complex analysis); Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem; elliptic functions; calculus of variations
Weil photo number theory; algebraic geometry; Mordell-Weil theorem; Weil conjectures
Weyl photo Riemann surfaces (topology); compact groups (abstract algebra); Weyl groups (abstract algebra); Lie algebras (abstract algebra); Weyl law (eigenvalues); Weyl's criterion (Diophantine equations)
Wiles photo Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Yoccoz photo dynamical systems
Zeeman photo geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=5; catastrophe theory; singularity theory
Zermelo photo mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms (set theory)