Answer to the Quiz (Sorted by Birth Year)

Quiz: You probably have already heard of some of the following mathematicians, maybe all of them. You may even be familiar with their work. But can you tell in which century/ies they lived or still live, and which country they come from? The photos may give you some hints.

Mathematician Photo Country Dates Some key contributions
Thales GR (∼624 BC – ∼546 BC) geometry
Pythagoras GR (∼570 BC – ∼495 BC) arithmetic; Pythagorean theorem
Eudoxus of Cnidus GR (∼408 BC – ∼355 BC) geometry; method of exhaustion (integral calculus)
Euclid GR (∼300 BC) arithmetic; number theory; trigonometry; Euclidian geometry
Archimedes GR (∼287 BC – ∼212 BC) geometry; volumes of solids of revolution; trigonometry; Archimedean spiral
Eratosthenes GR (∼276 BC – ∼195 BC) sieve of Eratosthenes (number theory)
Apollonius of Perga GR (∼262 BC – ∼190 BC) conic sections (geometry); book "Conics"
Hipparchus GR (∼190 BC – ∼120 BC) trigonometry
Heron of Alexandria GR (∼10 – ∼70) square roots; algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Heron's formula
Diophantus GR (between 201 and 215 – between 285 and 299) algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations
Sun Zi CN (between 200 and 500) algebraic equations; Diophantine equations; square roots; Chinese remainder theorem (number theory); books
Aryabhata IN (476 – 550) algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; trigonometry
Brahmagupta IN (597 – 668) algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; Pell's equation; arithmetic; use of 0
al-Khwarizmi Persia (∼780 – ∼850) algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; arithmetic; Hindu-Arabic numeral system
Bhaskara II IN (1114 – 1185) algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 2; Diophantine equations; Pell's equation
Fibonacci IT (∼1170 – ∼1250) Fibonacci numbers; Hindu-Arabic numeral system
Del Ferro IT (1465 – 1526) algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3
Tartaglia IT (1499 – 1557) algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3
Cardano IT (1501 – 1576) algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 3
Ferrari IT (1522 – 1565) algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 4
Vičte FR (1540 – 1603) convention of using letters for unknowns in equations
Napier UK (1550 – 1617) logarithm; decimal point
Faulhaber DE (1580 – 1635) Faulhaber's formula (sums of powers)
Mersenne FR (1588 – 1648) Mersenne primes
Descartes FR (1596 – 1650) Cartesian geometry; convention of using x, y, z, etc. for unknowns in equations and a, b, c, etc. for knowns
Fermat FR (∼1601 – 1665) Diophantine equations; Pell's equation; Fermat's little theorem (number theory); Fermat's theorem on sums of two squares (number theory); Fermat numbers (number theory) Fermat's last theorem (number theory)
Wallis UK (1616 – 1703) approximation of π; convention of using symbol ∞ for infinity; infinitesimal calculus
Pascal FR (1623 – 1662) probability theory; Pascal's triangle
Newton UK (1642 – 1727) dynamical systems; infinitesimal calculus; binomial theorem
Leibniz DE (1646 – 1716) infinitesimal calculus; convention of using d for differentials (infinitesimal calculus;); convention of using an elongated S for integrals (integral calculus)
Rolle FR (1652 – 1719) Rolle's theorem
Bernoulli, Jacob CH (1654 – 1705) Bernoulli numbers; constant e; Bernoulli distribution; Bernoulli differential equation
L'Hôpital FR (1661 – 1704) L'Hôpital's rule (infinitesimal calculus)
Bernoulli, Johann CH (1667 – 1748) infinitesimal calculus
Riccati IT (1676 – 1754) Riccati equation (differential equation)
Taylor, Brook UK (1685 – 1731) Taylor series; Taylor's theorem
Goldbach DE (1690 – 1764) Goldbach's conjecture; Fermat numbers (number theory)
Stirling UK (1692 – 1770) Stirling numbers (combinatorics); Stirling permutations (combinatorics); Stirling's approximation (factorials)
Bernoulli, Nicolaus II CH (1695 – 1726) St. Petersburg paradox (probability theory)
Maclaurin UK (1698 – 1746) Maclaurin series; Euler-Maclaurin formula (series and integral calculus)
Bernoulli, Daniel CH (1700 – 1782) probability theory
Bayes UK (1701 – 1761) Bayesian probability (probability theory)
Cramer CH (1704 – 1752) Cramer's rule (matrix theory)
Euler CH (1707 – 1783) infinitesimal calculus; Seven Bridges of Königsberg (graph theory); number theory; Euler's totient function; power series; Euler-Maclaurin formula (series and integral calculus); transcendental numbers; concept of mathematical function
Simpson UK (1710 – 1761) Simpson's rule (integral calculus)
Clairaut FR (1713 – 1765) Clairaut's equation (differential equation); Clairaut's relation (differential geometry)
D'Alembert FR (1717 – 1783) fundamental theorem of algebra; d'Alembertian
Bézout FR (1730 – 1783) algebraic equations; Bézout's identity (number theory)
Vandermonde FR (1735 – 1796) Vandermonde matrix; Vandermonde determinant; Vandermonde's identity
Lagrange IT (1736 – 1813) Lagrange's four-square theorem (number theory); calculus of variations; Euler-Lagrange equation (differential equation); Lagrange multipliers (mathematical optimization); Lagrangian
Laplace FR (1749 – 1827) Laplacian; Laplace transform; Bayesian probability (probability theory)
Legendre FR (1752 – 1833) least squares method; Legendre polynomials; quadratic reciprocity law; elliptic functions; Legendre symbol
Fourier FR (1768 – 1830) Fourier series; Fourier transform
Germain FR (1776 – 1831) number theory; Fermat's last theorem (number theory); differential equations
Gauss DE (1777 – 1855) fundamental theorem of algebra; number theory; quadratic forms; modular arithmetic; convention of using ≡ for congruence; geometry; Gaussian curvature (differential geometry); differential geometry of surfaces; Gauss-Jordan elimination (matrix theory)
Poisson FR (1781 – 1840) differential equations; Poisson's equation; probability theory; Poisson distribution
Bolzano CZ (1781 – 1848) foundations of mathematics; limit of a function; Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem
Bessel DE (1784 – 1846) Bessel functions (special functions)
Binet FR (1786 – 1856) matrix multiplication; Cauchy-Binet formula (matrix theory); matrix algebra; Binet-Cauchy identity; Binet's Fibonacci number formula (number theory); Binet equation (differential equation)
Cauchy FR (1789 – 1857) foundations of mathematics; series; complex analysis; infinitesimal calculus; limit of a function; Cauchy sequence; continuity; Cauchy-Schwarz inequality; group theory (abstract algebra)
Lobachevsky RU (1792 – 1856) hyperbolic geometry (non-Euclidean geometry)
Green UK (1793 – 1841) Green's theorem (integral calculus) Green's identities (integral calculus)
Chasles FR (1793 – 1880) Chasles's relation (geometry); cross-ratio (geometry); coined the term "homothety"
Bienaymé FR (1796 – 1878) Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality (probability theory); Bienaymé formula (statistics)
Sarrus FR (1798 – 1861) rule of Sarrus (determinants); Sarrus numbers (number theory);
Ostrogradsky RU (1801 – 1862) divergence theorem; calculus of variations
Abel NO (1802 – 1829) algebraic equations; polynomials of degree 5; group theory (abstract algebra); Abelian integrals (integral calculus); elliptic integrals (integral calculus)
Bolyai HU (1802 – 1860) non-Euclidian geometry; complex analysis
Sturm FR (1803 – 1855) Sturm's theorem (polynomials); Sturm-Liouville equation (differential equation); Sturm-Liouville theory (S-L theory); Sturm series (polynomials)
Jacobi DE (1804 – 1851) elliptic functions; Hamilton-Jacobi equation (differential equation); Jacobian matrix; Jacobian (determinant); Jacobi symbol
Dirichlet DE (1805 – 1859) number theory; Dirichlet L-functions; Fourier series; continuity; Dirichlet integral (integral calculus)
Hamilton IE (1805 – 1865) Hamiltonian; quaternions; hamiltonian paths (graph theory); Hamilton-Jacobi equation (differential equation)
De Morgan UK (1806 – 1871) De Morgan's laws; mathematical logic; mathematical induction
Liouville FR (1809 – 1882) number theory; complex analysis; Liouville's theorem; transcendental numbers; Liouville numbers; Sturm-Liouville theory
Galois FR (1811 – 1832) algebraic equations; polynomials of any degree; Galois theory
Laurent FR (1813 – 1854) Laurent series (complex analysis); Laurent polynomial
Sylvester UK (1814 – 1897) Sylvester's determinant theorem (matrix theory); Sylvester's formula (matrix theory); Sylvester equation (matrix theory); coined the terms "graph", "discriminant", and "totient"
Weierstrass DE (1815 – 1897) foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; limit of a function; analysis; Weierstrass factorization theorem (complex analysis); Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem; elliptic functions; calculus of variations
Boole UK (1815 – 1864) Boolean algebra; mathematical logic
Stokes UK (1819 – 1903) Stokes's theorem (differential geometry); Stokes line (complex analysis)
Chebyshev RU (1821 – 1894) Chebyshev polynomials; orthogonal polynomials; Bienaymé-Chebyshev inequality (probability theory); Chebyshev function (number theory); Chebyshev's bias (number theory); Chebyshev equation (differential equation)
Cayley UK (1821 – 1895) group theory (abstract algebra); Cayley's theorem (group theory); Cayley-Hamilton theorem (matrix theory); Cayley graph (graph theory); Cayley's formula (graph theory)
Hermite FR (1822 – 1901) Hermitian matrices; Hermite normal form; Hermite polynomials; Hermitian forms; transcendental numbers
Eisenstein DE (1823 – 1852) Eisenstein criterion (polynomials); quadratic reciprocity law; number theory
Kronecker DE (1823 – 1891) Kronecker δ; Kronecker product (matrix theory); Kronecker symbol (number theory); algebraic number theory (abstract algebra)
Brioschi IT (1824 – 1897) elliptic functions; polynomials of degree 5; polynomials of degree 6
Riemann DE (1826 – 1866) Riemannian geometry (non-Euclidean geometry); Riemann zeta function; Riemann hypothesis; Riemann integral (integral calculus); real analysis; differential geometry of surfaces
Dedekind DE (1831 – 1916) foundations of mathematics; set theory; ring theory (abstract algebra); number theory
Lipschitz DE (1832 – 1903) Lipschitz continuity condition; Dini-Lipschitz criterion
Beltrami IT (1835 – 1899) non-Euclidean geometry; Beltrami–Klein model (geometry); Singular value decomposition (matrix theory)
Jordan, Camille FR (1838 – 1922) group theory (abstract algebra); Jordan matrix; Jordan's totient function; Jordan curve theorem (topology
Jordan, Wilhelm DE (1842 – 1899) Gauss-Jordan elimination (matrix theory)
Lucas FR (1842 – 1891) Diophantine equations; number theory; primality tests; Lucas sequences; Lucas numbers; Lucas-Lehmer test; Mersenne primes
Darboux FR (1842 – 1917) Darboux sums (integral calculus); Darboux integral (integral calculus); Darboux's formula (series and integral calculus); Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation (differential equations); differential geometry of surfaces
Lie NO (1842 – 1899) Lie groups (abstract algebra); group theory (abstract algebra)
Cantor DE (1845 – 1918) foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; set theory; transfinite numbers; cardinal numbers; ordinal numbers; transcendental numbers
Mittag-Leffler SE (1846 – 1927) Mittag-Leffler function (special functions); Mittag-Leffler star (complex analysis) Mittag-Leffler's theorem (complex analysis) Mittag-Leffler summation (formal power series)
Klein DE (1849 – 1925) non-Euclidean geometry; Klein bottle (geometry); Erlangen program (geometry); Beltrami–Klein model (geometry); group theory (abstract algebra)
Frobenius DE (1849 – 1917) elliptic functions; differential equations; Frobenius algebra (abstract algebra); Perron–Frobenius theorem
Kovalevskaya RU (1850 – 1891) Cauchy–Kowalevski theorem (differential equations); Abelian integrals (integral calculus)
Ricci-Curbastro IT (1853 – 1925) tensor calculus; Ricci flow (differential geometry); Ricci curvature (differential geometry)
Poincaré FR (1854 – 1912) dynamical systems; Poincaré map (chaos theory); topology; Poincaré conjecture; fundamental group (algebraic topology); Fuchsian groups; Kleinian groups; differential equations
Appell FR (1855 – 1930) Appell series; differential equations; Appell sequence (polynomials); elliptic functions
Markov RU (1856 – 1922) Markov chains; Markov processes; stochastic processes
Stieltjes NL (1856 – 1894) Riemann-Stieltjes integral (integral calculus); continued fractions; orthogonal polynomials
Dudeney UK (1857 – 1930) recreational mathematics
Lyapunov RU (1857 – 1918) differential equations; Lyapunov exponent (chaos theory); central limit theorem (probability theory)
Peano IT (1858 – 1932) mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; set theory; Peano axioms (axiomatization); Peano existence theorem (differential equations)
Cesŕro IT (1859 – 1906) differential geometry; Cesŕro mean (divergent series)
Hölder DE (1859 – 1937) abstract algebra; classification of simple groups (group theory); Hölder's inequality (analysis); Hölder condition (analysis); Hölder's theorem (gamma function)
Hilbert DE (1862 – 1943) foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Hilbert space; functional analysis; Hilbert's 23 problems
Thue NO (1863 – 1922) Diophantine equations; Diophantine approximations; Thue equation; Thue-Siegel-Roth theorem
Painlevé FR (1863 – 1933) differential equations
Minkowski DE (1864 – 1909) Minkowski inequality; number theory
Hadamard FR (1865 – 1963) prime number theorem (number theory); complex analysis; differential geometry; calculus of variations; differential equations
Hausdorff DE (1868 – 1942) Hausdorff space; topology; Hausdorff maximal principle (set theory); Hausdorff measure (measure theory)
Cartan FR (1869 – 1951) Cartan matrix; group theory (abstract algebra); Cartan decomposition (abstract algebra); Cartan's theorem (abstract algebra)
Borel FR (1871 – 1956) Borel set (topology); measure theory; probability theory
Zermelo DE (1871 – 1953) mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms (set theory)
Russell UK (1872 – 1970) mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; Russell's paradox
Levi-Civita IT (1873 – 1941) tensor calculus; Hamilton–Jacobi equation
Lebesgue FR (1875 – 1941) Lebesgue integration (integral calculus); measure theory
Hardy UK (1877 – 1947) number theory; mathematical analysis; Waring's problem; Hardy–Littlewood conjectures
Fejér HU (1880 – 1959) harmonic analysis; Fejér kernel (Fourier series); Fejér's theorem
Perron DE (1880 – 1975) Perron method (differential equations); Perron–Frobenius theorem (matrix theory); Perron's formula (number theory)
Brouwer NL (1881 – 1966) topology; Brouwer's fixed-point theorem (algebraic topology); simplicial approximation theorem (algebraic topology); invariance of domain (topology)
Littlewood UK (1885 – 1977) number theory; mathematical analysis; Diophantine approximation; Waring's problem; Hardy–Littlewood conjectures
Weyl DE (1885 – 1955) Riemann surfaces (topology); compact groups (abstract algebra); Weyl groups (abstract algebra); Lie algebras (abstract algebra); Weyl law (eigenvalues); Weyl's criterion (Diophantine equations)
Riesz HU (1886 – 1969) divergent series; partial differential equations
Pólya HU (1887 – 1985) heuristics; combinatorics; number theory; probability theory
Ramanujan IN (1887 – 1920) number theory; series; continued fractions; Ramanujan-Petersson conjecture
Mordell UK (1888 – 1972) number theory; Diophantine equations; Mordell curve; modular forms; Mordell-Weil theorem; Mordell conjecture
Fraenkel DEIL (1891 – 1965) mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; axiomatization; Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms (set theory)
Vinogradov RU (1891 – 1983) analytic number theory
Banach PL (1892 – 1945) Banach space (functional analysis); Banach algebra (functional analysis); Banach-Tarski paradox (topology)
Szegö HU (1895 – 1985) orthogonal polynomials; Toeplitz matrices
Artin ATUS (1898 – 1962) Artinian rings (abstract algebra); algebraic number theory (abstract algebra); Galois theory; braid theory (topology)
Van der Waerden NL (1903 – 1996) abstract algebra; history of mathematics; book
Kolmogorov RU (1903 – 1987) probability theory; differential equations; KAM theorem (integrable systems); stochastic processes
Von Neumann HUUS (1903 – 1957) foundations of mathematics; measure theory; ergodic theory
Lehmer US (1905 – 1991) number theory; primality tests; Lucas-Lehmer test; Mersenne primes
Gödel AT (1906 – 1978) mathematical logic; foundations of mathematics; Gödel's incompleteness theorems
Weil FR (1906 – 1998) number theory; algebraic geometry; Mordell-Weil theorem; Weil conjectures; history of mathematics
Dieudonné FR (1906 – 1992) Dieudonné module (abstract algebra); Dieudonné ring (abstract algebra); history of mathematics; books
Erdélyi HU (1908 – 1977) special functions; orthogonal polynomials; hypergeometric functions
Sobolev RU (1908 – 1989) theory of distributions; Sobolev space (analysis)
Turán HU (1910 – 1976) number theory; graph theory
Erdös HU (1913 – 1996) graph theory; number theory; Prime Number Theorem; probability theory
Gelfand RU (1913 – 2009) group theory; representation theory; functional analysis
Gardner US (1914 – 2010) recreational mathematics
Schwartz FR (1915 – 2002) theory of distributions
Ito JP (1915 – 2008) probability theory; stochastic differential equations; Ito's lemma
Iwasawa JP (1917 – 1998) Iwasawa decomposition (abstract algebra) Iwasawa algebra (abstract algebra) Iwasawa theory (abstract algebra)
Thom FR (1923 – 2002) topology; catastrophe theory; singularity theory
Zeeman UK (1925 – ) geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=5; catastrophe theory; singularity theory
Serre FR (1926 – ) algebraic geometry; algebraic number theory (abstract algebra)
Lang US (1927 – 2005) abstract algebra; Diophantine geometry; modular forms; books
Taniyama JP (1927 – 1958) Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Grothendieck DE ⇒ stateless ⇒ FR (1928 – 2014) algebraic geometry; algebraic number theory (abstract algebra)
Shimura JP (1930 – 2019) Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Smale US (1930 – ) geometric topology; h-cobordism; Poincaré conjecture for n≥5
Stallings US (1935 – 2008) geometric group theory; Stallings theorem about ends of groups (group theory); geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=6;
Langlands CA (1936 – ) abstract algebra; Langlands program (algebra and analysis)
Manin RU (1937 – ) algebraic geometry; arithmetic topology; Diophantine geometry; Gauss-Manin connection
Arnold RU (1937 – 2010) differential equations; dynamical systems; KAM theorem (integrable systems); catastrophe theory; mathematical physics
Mazur US (1937 – ) geometric topology; arithmetic topology; Diophantine geometry
Hamilton, Richard US (1943 – ) differential geometry; Ricci flow (differential geometry)
Stewart UK (1945 – ) recreational mathematics
Thurston US (1946 – 2012) manifolds; (topology); foliation theory; (topology); Thurston's geometrization conjecture (geometric topology)
Matiyasevich RU (1947 – ) Hilbert's tenth problem; Diophantine equations
Ribet US (1948 – ) Fermat's last theorem (number theory); modular forms; Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Freedman US (1951 – ) geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=4;
Wiles UK (1953 – ) Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory)
Faltings DE (1954 – ) number theory; Mordell conjecture
Lions FR (1956 – ) nonlinear partial differential equations
Yoccoz FR (1957 – 2016) dynamical systems
Taylor, Richard UK (1962 – ) Fermat's last theorem (number theory); Taniyama-Shimura conjecture (topology and number theory); Langlands program (algebra and analysis)
Perelman RU (1966 – ) geometric topology; Poincaré conjecture for n=3; Thurston's geometrization conjecture (geometric topology)
Tao AUUS (1975 – ) Green-Tao theorem (number theory); circular law (probability theory); Hardy-Littlewood prime tuples conjecture; prime gaps (number theory)